Today in history, greetings, and social banter here. (More)

The Julian Calendar began (45 BCE) and the Roman Senate posthumously deified Julius Caesar today (42 BCE). Also, an enraged mob dismembered Christian monk Telemachus after he tried to stop a gladiatorial combat in Rome’s Colosseum (404), Hungary’s first king Stephen I was crowned (1001), as were Byzantine emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (1068), Nicaean co-emperors Michael VIII Palaiologos and John IV Laskaris (1259), Hungarian king Albert II of Habsburg (1438), French king Francis I (1515), Scottish king Charles II (1651), and Portuguese king John V (1707), Portuguese explorers arrived at what is now Rio de Janeiro (1502), the Russian calendar switched from the Byzantine Anno Mundi to the western Anno Domini numbering (1700), The Daily Universal Register was renamed The Times of London (1788), the Dutch East India Company was dissolved (1800), Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the dwarf planet Ceres (1801), Haiti became the first black republic and the second independent nation in North America (1804), Britain claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (1833), Brooklyn’s Cobble Hill Tunnel was completed (1845), the world’s first Sisters of Mercy hospital opened in Pittsburgh (1847), Poland issued her first postage stamp (1860), the Emancipation Proclamation took effect in Confederate territory (1863), Japan adopted the Gregorian Calendar (1873), 25 nations adopted Sandford Fleming’s proposal for time zones and a standard time (1885), the first Rose Parade was held in Pasadena (1890), Ellis Island began processing immigrants into the U.S. (1892), England’s Manchester Ship Canal opened (1894), New York City annexed Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx to become the City of Greater New York (1898), Michigan and Stanford played in the first Rose Bowl, also the first college football bowl game (1902), the first New Year’s ball drop occurred in Times Square (1908), the British Board of Censors, now the Board of Film Classification, was established (1913), Mexico’s Cristero War began, on the same day Turkey adopted the Gregorian Calendar (1927), the cities of Point Grey and South Vancouver joined into Vancouver (1929), Alcatraz became a federal prison (1934), Britain mandated safety glass in auto windshields (1937), the U.S. and British occupation zones in post-World War II Germany merged into the Bizone that later became West Germany, on the same day the Canadian Citizenship Act converted British subjects living in Canada into Canadian citizens (1947), the British rail network was nationalized into British Railways, on the same day the Constitution of Italy took effect (1948), NBC broadcast the first coast-to-coast NTSC color signal for the Tournament of Roses Parade (1954), Sudan gained independence (1956), the European Economic Community was established (1958), Fidel Castro’s forces overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959), Western Samoa gained independence, on the same day the U.S. Navy SEALs were created (1962), the 12-day New York City Transit Strike began (1966), cigarette advertisements were banned from U.S. television (1968), Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Ireland joined the European Economic Community (1973), as did Greece (1981), and Spain and Portugal (1986), ARPANET became the internet (1984), and the Internet Domain Name System was created (1985), Aruba gained independence (1986), as did Curaçao (1996), the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect (1994), as did the World Trade Organization, on the same day Sweden, Austria, and Finland joined the European Union (1995), the European Central Bank is established (1998), the euro currency was introduced (1999) and became legal tender (2002), and Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union and Slovenia joined the Eurozone (2007), as did Cyprus and Malta (2008), Slovakia (2009), Estonia (2011), Latvia (2014), and Lithuania (2015). And 39 people were killed when a gunman attacked a night club in Istanbul, Turkey, on the same day Portuguese diplomat António Guterres was elected Secretary General of the United Nations (2017).

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Yesterday on Campus

Campus QuestionElizabeth Warren throws her hat in the 2020 ring. Will the ring throw it back?

Today on Campus

Campus Question at 6pm ET

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Photo Credit: Geert Weggen (Mercury Press)

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Happy New Year! ::hugggggs::