Today in history, greetings, and social banter here. (More)

A storm surge on the North Sea flooded the German city of Rungholt today (1362). Also, the House of Medici were appointed to be the papal bankers (1412), Queen Isabella I was presented the first grammar of the Spanish language (1492), Ivan the Terrible became Czar of Russia (1547), the English Parliament banned Roman Catholicism (1581), Miguel de Cervantes published El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, Book One of what became Don Quixote (1605), the Scottish Parliament ratified the Act of Union, allowing the formation of Great Britain (1707), Virginia adopted Thomas Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom (1786), 204 men and boys died in the Hartley Colliery Disaster, prompting the British Parliament to enact a law requiring at least two independent escape routes from all mines (1862), President Chester Arthur signed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, creating the U.S. Civil Service (1883), Ernest Shackleton’s expedition reached the magnetic South Pole (1909), with New Hampshire and Oregon providing the 32nd and 33rd states on the previous day, the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified (1919), Carole Lombard and 21 other passengers and crew died when TWA Flight 3 struck a sheer cliff 32 miles after taking off from Las Vegas (1942), Hello, Dolly! opened on Broadway (1964), Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 performed the first-ever docking of manned spacecraft in orbit (1969), Buckminster Fuller received the American Institute of Architects’ Gold Medal award (1970), Bonanza concluded its 14-year run on NBC (1973), Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, fled to Egypt (1979), the Internet Engineering Task Force met for the first time (1983), a U.S.-led coalition began striking Iraq in the first Gulf War (1991), the Chapultepec Peace Accords ended the Salvadoran Civil War (1992), President Bill Clinton awarded President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish-American War (2001), falling chunks of ice fatally damaged the heat-resistant tiles of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it lifted off on its final mission (2003), at age 66, Romanian university lecturer and novelist Adriana Iliescu gave birth to her daughter Eliza, the oldest birth mother on record (2005), and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was inaugurated as President of Liberia, making her Africa’s first elected female head of state (2006). And Al Qaeda-linked terrorists seized over 800 hostages at the Tigantourine gas facility near In Amenas, Algeria (2013).

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Good morning! ::hugggggs::