Today in history, greetings, and social banter here. (More)

Constantine the Great reportedly received his famous Vision of the Cross today (312). Also, the Dutch city of Amsterdam was founded (1275), as was Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1682), the Treaty of Madrid defined the boundaries between the U.S. and Spain’s North American colonies (1795), the U.S. annexed West Florida, now the Florida Panhandle and parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (1810), Vincenzo Bellini’s opera Il pirata premiered (1827), Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs issued the Extermination Order authorizing the state militia to make war on any Mormons who did not leave the state (1838), the first underground New York City Subway line opened (1904), the First London Naval Treaty took effect (1930), Benjamin Davis Jr., whose father was the first black general in the U.S. Army, became the first black general in the U.S. Air Force (1954), Pakistan’s first President, Iskander Mirza, was deposed by General Ayub Khan 20 days after Mirza appointed Khan to impose martial law (1958), U2 pilot Rudolf Anderson was shot down over Cuba, the only direct fatality of the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), Ronald Reagan delivered his “A Time for Choosing” speech to support Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater (1964), the Democratic Republic of the Congo was renamed Zaire (1971), the Cañon City Meteorite landed in Fremont County, Colorado (1973), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gained independence (1979), the British government deregulated financial markets, an event later dubbed the Big Bang (1986), President Ronald Reagan ordered the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow destroyed when Soviet listening devices were found in the building’s structure (1988), Turkmenistan gained independence (1991), the murder of U.S. Navy radioman Allen Schindler forced the debate that led to the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy (1992), astronomers identified Gliese 229B, the first confirmed Substellar Mass Object (1994), former Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi was convicted in absentia of corruption (1995), the Asian Financial Crisis plunged world stock markets in a “mini-crash” that heralded the end of a decade-long U.S. economic boom (1997), and Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan, Chairman Karen Demirchyan, and 6 other members were killed when gunmen opened fire in the Armenian Parliament (1999). And the deaths of two Muslim teens began 20 nights of rioting in Paris (2005).

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Good morning! ::hugggggs::