Most of us flush the toilet confident in the idea that our waste will be flushed away and not cause any problems. Aging sewer infrastructure is putting our assumptions and our health at risk. (More)
The phrase “out of sight out of mind” applies to our aging sewer infrastructure. Most of us in cities walk over the buried water and sewer infrastructure on a daily basis. Since sewers became commonplace in the US around the turn of the century many of these miles of pipes were installed over 100 years ago. Many of them have also not been maintained in any kind of systematic way.
Modern sewage systems began to appear in the 19th century, when existing storm sewers were enlarged to carry wastes to nearby waterways. Municipal sewage treatment was slowly adopted in the 20th century. The growing size of cities and the pollution caused by untreated sewage forced the passage of legislation that set quality standards for treated sewage and funded sewage treatment facilities.
This video from Penn State Public Broadcasting provides a nice overview:
Individual households would certainly notice if they flushed and nothing happened.
On a city wide level, untreated waste would also create a big problem.
It’s vitally important to a community to have a sewage system. If waste is not promptly carried away, a community can become infected by disease. Disposing of untreated or inadequately treated waste into waterways or the soil can create serious pollution. Disease-causing organisms can infect drinking water, and toxic chemicals can poison the water and kill wildlife. Some of the nutrients in sewage can cause certain aquatic plant life to grow excessively. Decomposing wastes can deplete waterways of oxygen, making them unfit for many species of aquatic life.
Some recent headlines:
Local governments across the USA plan to spend billions modernizing failing wastewater systems — some of which are more than 100 years old — over the next 10 to 20 years, EPA, state and local sewer authority officials said.
Those improvement efforts face a huge challenge mitigating problems in what the EPA estimates to be 1.2 million miles of sewers snaking underground across the USA.
And just like roads and bridges, the vast majority of the country’s water systems are in urgent need of repair and replacement. At a recent Senate hearing, it was estimated that, on average, 25 percent of drinking water leaks from water system pipes before reaching the faucet. The same committee was told it will take $335 billion to resurrect water systems and $300 billion to fix sewer systems.
The EPA’s 2008 report claimed New York’s needs totaled $35.4 billion, an increase of 22 percent from the 2004 report. The agency is currently collecting data for the 2012 report.
Middletown Commissioner of Public Works Jacob Tawil said cities big and small across the country face the same challenge: Major infrastructure costs money local governments don’t have.
“Nobody can afford it. Not us, not Chicago, not New York City, not Poughkeepsie,” Tawil said.
The only solution, other than hoping for federal or state grants, is to prioritize projects and plan them strategically within a limited budget, Tawil said.
Many of the country’s 16,000 wastewater treatment systems are in poor condition because governments have not invested enough in maintenance and upgrades, according to a 2009 study by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Sewer spills caused by blocked or broken pipes release up to 10 billion gallons of sewage each year across the country, the report said.
Politicians don’t win elections by promising new sewers. And the $800 billion in federal stimulus money doled out starting back in 2009 offered lots of money for bridges and roads, but only $5 billion, or one half of 1 percent, to the pipes that lie beneath.
The threat to Public Health:
Obviously the smell of raw sewage floating down the middle of the street would be a bad thing. Other than that imagine a home flooded with raw sewage.
If allowed to remain in walls and between floorboards, raw sewage can breed diseases like salmonella, hepatitis A and giardia, said Vince Radke, a sanitarian at the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. He said contaminated items, including drywall and insulation, as well as furniture, should be thrown out.
In Raritan Bay, the Hudson River and the waters around the Bay Park plant, the Environmental Protection Agency has detected dangerous levels of fecal coliform, a bacteria associated with human waste, and has urged people to avoid contact with the water. Bans on shellfish have been imposed in some regions.
The EPA adds a long list of diseases related to exposure to untreated sewage:
typhoid, tuberculosis, dysentery, cholera, tetanus, hepatitis,and several types of gastroenteritis. The problem is compounded by the use of antibiotic resistant superbugs “that can cause infections such as SARS which can be transmitted through sewage.
Oh Crap, What Now
Out of sight, out of mind does not mean there is no problem. It may not take a super storm to expose your local problems. A good heavy rain may be all that is required. Not pooping is not an option either. So inform yourself about your local treatment plant. Use Google and see if any of the thousands of headlines belong to you. Find out what the maintenance and upgrading plans are for your area. Don’t assume that because you live in a new development that you are free of any problems.
Ask questions at city council meetings and town halls. Maybe we could get a few politicians to “run on sewers” and run on adding both stimulus dollars and the required jobs to future funding bills. Write to your Senators and Representative, armed with your local facts, and ask for the funding and jobs to rebuild your sewage treatment facility and the miles of poop moving pipe.
Talk with friends, family members and coworkers. There is no excuse for saying, “We had no idea.” We do have an idea and what we need is a plan. This isn’t glamorous as topics go but it is important.